Belajar Jadi Manusia


Sejarah Guru
Juli 9, 2008, 6:22 pm
Filed under: Manusia lain, Manusia Pandai | Tag:

Pada zaman dahulu, sebelum agama masuk di Indonesia, seorang yang ingin belajar harus mengunjungi seorang petapa. Petapa itu mungkin saja yang telah meninggalkan tahta kerajaan karena sudah tua dan memperdalam masalah kerohanian. Petapa itulah yang disebut juga guru bagi murid muridnya yang menuntut ilmu ditempat tersebut. Biasanya para murid itu mengerjakan sawah ladang petapa untuk keperluan hidup sehari-hari.

Pada masa kerajaan Budha/Hindu di Indonesia orang belajar dibiara. Biksu yang mengajar membaca serta menulis huruf sansekerta dibiara tersebut disebut guru. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari mereka bekerja diladang. Para siswa juga meminta sedekah dari masyarakat untuk membantu kehidupan sehari-hari.

Setelah agama Islam masuk di Indonesia, orang belajar di pesantren supaya dapat membaca Al-quran dan melakukan salat dengan benar. Ulama yang mengajar dipesantren juga dinamakan guru. Para siswa biasanya tinggal dirumah ulama tersebut dan membantu bercocok tanam untuk kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari.

Para pedagang Portugis dan Belanda yang datang di Indonesia umumnya beragama kristen, selain berdagang mereka juga menyebarkan agama itu. Mempelajari agama kristen, membaca dan menulis huruf latin. Para pendeta yang mengajarkan agama kristen itu juga disebut guru. Untuk kepentingan penjajahannya Belanda memerlukan pegawai yang pandai menulis dan membaca huruf latin. Karena itu mereka mendirikan sekolah dan mengajarkan ilmu pengetahuan yang tidak berkaitan dengan agama. Inilah awal mula sistem pendidikan modern di Indonesia.


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